Contains: NGC 4479, NGC 4477, NGC 4473, NGC 4461, NGC 4458, IC 3393, NGC 4438, The Eyes, NGC 4435, NGC 4425, M 86, NGC 4406, NGC 4402, NGC 4388, NGC 4387, IC 3303, M 84, NGC 4374
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Markarian's Chain

Technical card

Resolution: 3246x2286

Dates: April 29, 2017

Frames: 68x90" ISO1600

Integration: 1.7 hours

Darks: ~10

Avg. Moon age: 3.46 days

Avg. Moon phase: 12.92%

Bortle Dark-Sky Scale: 5.00

Temperature: 18.00 job: 1570384

RA center: 186.899 degrees

DEC center: 13.200 degrees

Pixel scale: 1.836 arcsec/pixel

Orientation: -178.447 degrees

Field radius: 1.013 degrees

Locations: Happy Frog Observatory, Monroe, Connecticut, United States


Markarian's Chain is a beautiful string of galaxies that is part of the Virgo Cluster. It was named after the Armenian astrophysicist, B. E. Markarian, who did extensive research on these galaxies in the early 1960s. Member galaxies include M84 (NGC 4374), M86 (NGC 4406), NGC 4477, NGC 4473, NGC 4461, NGC 4458, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435.

I took full advantage of the one clear night we had last weekend and imaged this object as well as M104, the Sombrero Galaxy. One of the most interesting members of the chain are the galaxies NGC 4435 and NGC 4438. Together they make up what is known as The Eyes. At 52 million light years away, the two interacting galaxies resemble eyes intently staring at something or someone.

In just imaging Markarian's Chain, I have manged to capture three more Messier objects for my catalog.



Kurt Zeppetello



In this Image I cropped out M87 and focused on Markarian's Chain.

Sky plot

Sky plot


Markarian's Chain, Kurt Zeppetello