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The Integral Sign Galaxy, PGC 20348, UGC 3697, 


            Steven Bellavia
The Integral Sign Galaxy, PGC 20348, UGC 3697
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The Integral Sign Galaxy, PGC 20348, UGC 3697

Technical card

Imaging telescopes or lenses: Celestron C6 SCT

Imaging cameras: ZWO ASI183MC Pro  ·  ZWO ASI 183MM Pro

Mounts: Celestron AVX Mount

Guiding cameras: ASI224MC

Focal reducers: Celestron f/6.3 Focal Reducer

Software: IDEIKI AstroPhotography Tool (APT)  ·  Stark Labs Nebulosity 4.2  ·  Digital Photo Professional  ·  Annie's Astro Actions V7  ·  Noel Carboni's Astro Tools for PhotoShop Noel Carboni Actions  ·  PHD2 Guiding

Filters: L

Accessory: Celestron OAG #93648

Dates:March 4, 2019March 5, 2019

L: 60x120" (gain: 120.00) -15C bin 1x1
L: 34x240" (gain: 120.00) -15C bin 1x1

Integration: 4.3 hours

Darks: ~30

Avg. Moon age: 28.04 days

Avg. Moon phase: 2.70%

Bortle Dark-Sky Scale: 4.00

Temperature: -4.00

Basic astrometry details

Astrometry.net job: 2568386

RA center: 7h 11' 20"

DEC center: +71° 50' 2"

Pixel scale: 0.492 arcsec/pixel

Orientation: 3.092 degrees

Field radius: 0.222 degrees

Resolution: 2700x1800

Data source: Backyard


The Integral Sign Galaxy (PGC 20348, UGC 3697, MCG 12-7-28, ) is a tiny, faint, very thin edge-on galaxy in Camelopardalis. It is a strongly warped spiral galaxy.

Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the origin of warps, such as tidal disturbances by nearby galaxies, gravitational torques from misaligned halos, accretion of the intergalactic medium, and bending instability of self-gravitating disks. More than half of spiral galaxies have warped disks, but the Integral sign galaxy is considered a strongly warped galaxy, which is less common. PGC 20348 is a late type spiral galaxy (Sd) which has two companions of comparable masses (PGC 20362 and PGC 20398).

It is a challenging object to find and view. It is about half way between galaxy M81 and open star cluster NGC 1502 (Jolly Roger cluster, which is at the beginning/end of Kemble's Cascade). It lies closely between two 6-7th magnitude stars, HIP 34956/SAO 6115 and HIP 34513/SAO 6092, , about 18 degrees from Polaris.

Edge-on Spiral Galaxy
PGS 20348, UGC 3697
RA: 07h11m22.55s, Dec: +71°50'10.9" (2000) in Camelopardalis
Magnitude: 13.10
Size: 3.2'x 0.4'
Redshift (z): 0.010487 (approx 150 MLY)
Mean Surface Br. 23.4 Mag/arc-sec²

P.S. It really is not an integral sign. No matter how you rotate the image, it is always facing the wrong way. So it is actually the rotation and flip (reflection) of the integral sign. :)



Steven Bellavia
License: None (All rights reserved)

Sky plot

Sky plot


The Integral Sign Galaxy, PGC 20348, UGC 3697, 


            Steven Bellavia