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Contains:  NGC 4479, NGC 4477, NGC 4473, NGC 4461, NGC 4458, NGC 4438, The Eyes, NGC 4435, NGC 4425, NGC 4413, M 86, NGC 4406, NGC 4402, NGC 4388, NGC 4387, M 84, NGC 4374
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Markarian's Chain, 


            Steven Bellavia
Markarian's Chain

Markarian's Chain

Technical card

Resolution: 4500x3000

Dates:April 3, 2019

Frames:Optolong L: 53x240" (gain: 111.00) -15C bin 1x1

Integration: 3.5 hours

Darks: ~30

Avg. Moon age: 27.81 days

Avg. Moon phase: 3.32%

Bortle Dark-Sky Scale: 4.00

Mean SQM: 20.70

Mean FWHM: 4.00

Temperature: 7.00 job: 2761957

RA center: 12h 27' 34"

DEC center: +13° 8' 9"

Pixel scale: 1.434 arcsec/pixel

Orientation: 359.577 degrees

Field radius: 1.077

Data source: Traveller


Markarian's Chain is a stretch of galaxies that forms part of the Virgo Cluster. When viewed from Earth, the galaxies lie along a smoothly curved line. Charles Messier first discovered two of the galaxies, M84 and M86, in 1781. The other galaxies seen in the chain were first mentioned in John Louis Emil Dreyer's New General Catalogue, published in 1888. It was ultimately named after the Armenian astrophysicist, Benjamin Markarian, who discovered their common motion in the early 1960s. Member galaxies include the brighter lenticular galaxies, M84 (NGC 4374), M86 (NGC 4406), as well as NGC 4477, NGC 4473, NGC 4461, NGC 4458, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435.The chain of galaxies spans over 1.5 degrees (three full moons) on the border between Virgo and Coma Berenices. The galaxies are between 50 and 70 million light years away.



Steven Bellavia
License: None (All rights reserved)

Sky plot

Sky plot


Markarian's Chain, 


            Steven Bellavia