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Contains:  M 84, M 86, M 87, NGC 4374, NGC 4388, NGC 4402, NGC 4406, NGC 4425, NGC 4435, NGC 4438, NGC 4459, NGC 4461, NGC 4473, NGC 4477, NGC 4486, Virgo Galaxy
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Markarian's Chain (LRGB), 


            Min Xie
Markarian's Chain (LRGB), 


            Min Xie

Markarian's Chain (LRGB)

Technical card

Imaging telescopes or lenses: Takahashi FSQ-85EDP

Imaging cameras: ASI1600mm Pro

Mounts: Astro-Physics Mach1GTO CP3

Guiding telescopes or lenses: QHYCCD QHYOAG-M

Guiding cameras: ZWO ASI120mm-Mini

Focal reducers: Takahashi Reducer-QE 0.73x

Software: ProDigital Software StarSpikes Pro 4  ·  StarNet++  ·  Adobe Photoshop 2019 CC  ·  Astro Pixel Processor  ·  Sequence Generator Pro  ·  PixInsight 1.8 Ripley

Filters: Astrodon E Series Gen II Blue 31mm  ·  Astrodon E Series Gen II Red 31mm  ·  Astrodon E Series Gen II Lum 31mm  ·  Astrodon E Series Gen II Green 31mm

Accessory: PrimaLuceLab Sesto Senso Robotic Focusing Motor  ·  ZWO EFW  ·  Kingdel NC860 (i7-8550U)

Dates:April 25, 2020

Astrodon E Series Gen II Blue 31mm: 15x180" (gain: 74.00) -20C bin 1x1
Astrodon E Series Gen II Green 31mm: 15x180" (gain: 74.00) -20C bin 1x1
Astrodon E Series Gen II Lum 31mm: 30x180" (gain: 74.00) -20C bin 1x1
Astrodon E Series Gen II Red 31mm: 15x180" (gain: 74.00) -20C bin 1x1

Integration: 3.8 hours

Darks: ~40

Flats: ~40

Flat darks: ~40

Avg. Moon age: 2.18 days

Avg. Moon phase: 5.30%

Bortle Dark-Sky Scale: 2.00

Mean SQM: 21.99

Temperature: 7.00

Basic astrometry details job: 3483589

RA center: 12h 26' 55"

DEC center: +13° 8' 16"

Pixel scale: 3.588 arcsec/pixel

Orientation: 270.307 degrees

Field radius: 1.608 degrees

Resolution: 1966x2560

Locations: SPAC Dark Site, Guthrie, Texas, United States

Data source: Traveller


It's been a long time since my last effort on an LRGB target. The Markarian's Chain was a quick test (only 3.75 hours LRGB) at SPAC Dark Site.

The luminance channel lacks data and it's a big headache to process. Lots of local adjustments made in both PixInsight and Photoshop. I am happy with the final result for only 3.75 hours of imaging.

Pre-processing of LRGB Masters

– Calibration / Integration, Astro Pixel Processor
– MultiscaleLinearTransform (Denoise), PixInsight
- Range Selection, PixInsight
- PixelMath, PixInsight
– ScreenTransferFunction / HistogramTransformation, PixInsight.

RGB Combination & Final Touchups

– LRGBCombination, PixInsight
– MorphologicalTransformation, PixInsight
– ScreenTransferFunction / HistogramTransformation, PixInsight.



Min Xie
License: Attribution-NonCommercial Creative Commons


  • Final
    Markarian's Chain (LRGB), 


            Min Xie
  • Markarian's Chain (LRGB), 


            Min Xie


Description:... added some star spikes to make the image more balanced ...

Sky plot

Sky plot


Markarian's Chain (LRGB), 


            Min Xie