Hemisphere:  Southern  ·  Constellation: Corvus (Crv)  ·  Contains:  Antennae  ·  Antennae Galaxies  ·  NGC 4038  ·  NGC 4039  ·  NGC4038  ·  NGC4039
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Antennae Galaxies - NGC 4038 & 4039, 


            Miles Zhou
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Antennae Galaxies - NGC 4038 & 4039

Imaging telescopes or lenses: Planewave 17" CDK CDK 17"

Imaging cameras: Finger Lakes Instrumentation FLI ML 16803

Mounts: 10Micron GM3000 HPS

Software: Adobe Lightroom CC  ·  Adobe Photoshop CC  ·  PixInsight for Mac

Filters: Astrodon LRGB Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Filters

Dates:Jan. 22, 2021

Frames: 95x600"

Integration: 15.8 hours

Avg. Moon age: 8.81 days

Avg. Moon phase: 64.96%

Astrometry.net job: 4203125

RA center: 12h 1' 47"

DEC center: -18° 53' 50"

Pixel scale: 0.636 arcsec/pixel

Orientation: 0.117 degrees

Field radius: 0.303 degrees

Resolution: 2350x2495

Locations: Deep Sky Chile, Chile, Chile

Data source: Amateur hosting facility

Remote source: DeepSkyWest


NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 are known as the Antennae galaxies. They are located near western edge of Corvus.

This pair of interacting galaxies was discovered by William Herschel on February 7, 1785,

NGC 4038 and 4039 have a visual magnitude of 10.5 and 10.3, respectively, and their cores appear both 5.4 arc minutes across. The nuclei of the two galaxies are joining to become one giant galaxy; two long streamers of ejected stars, gas and dust extend outward from their centers, making two long tails (shown) which resemble the antennae of an insect.

The Antennae lie about 63 million light-years away, in the NGC 4038 Group of galaxies in the constellations Corvus and Crater. The group's best known galaxies are NGC 4038 and 4039; but NGC 3956, 3957, 3981, 4024, 4027, 4033, and 4050 (not shown) have also been consistently identified as group members.

In any case, the Antennae are the nearest and youngest example of a pair of colliding galaxies. About 1.2 billion years ago, the Antennae were two separate galaxies; NGC 4038 was a spiral, and NGC 4039 was a barred spiral. Before the galaxies collided, NGC 4039 was probably larger than NGC 4038. 900 million years ago, the Antennae began to approach one another, appearing similar to NGC 2207 and IC 2163. 600 million years ago, the Antennae passed through each other, like the Mice Galaxies (NGC 4676 in Coma Berenices). 300 million years ago, the collision began to release the Antennae's stars, as each galaxy's gravitation has drawn out a curved tail of stars from the other. Today the two streamers of ejected stars extend far beyond the original galaxies, spanning a total of some 360,000 light-years.

This is a simple LRGB composition.



    Antennae Galaxies - NGC 4038 & 4039, 


            Miles Zhou
  • Final
    Antennae Galaxies - NGC 4038 & 4039, 


            Miles Zhou

Sky plot

Sky plot


Antennae Galaxies - NGC 4038 & 4039, 


            Miles Zhou