Hemisphere:  Northern  ·  Constellation: Orion (Ori)  ·  Contains:  M 78  ·  NGC 2064  ·  NGC 2067  ·  NGC 2068  ·  NGC 2071  ·  PK204-13.1  ·  VdB59  ·  VdB60
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            Joey Troy
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            Joey Troy
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Technical card

Imaging telescopes or lenses: William Optics Redcat 51

Imaging cameras: ZWO ASI533MC Pro

Mounts: Sky-Watcher EQM 35 Pro

Guiding telescopes or lenses: ZWO 30mm f/4 Mini Guide Scope

Guiding cameras: ZWO ASI 120 Mini Mono

Software: PixInsight

Accessory: ZWO ASiair pro  ·  ZWO EAF

Dates:Jan. 30, 2021Jan. 31, 2021

Frames: 28x600" (4h 40') (gain: 101.00) -10C

Integration: 4h 40'

Darks: 10

Flats: 10

Bias: 10

Avg. Moon age: 17.05 days

Avg. Moon phase: 93.92%

Bortle Dark-Sky Scale: 3.00

Mean FWHM: 7.97

RA center: 05h46m49s.99

DEC center: +00°0417.8

Pixel scale: 4.484 arcsec/pixel

Orientation: -96.270 degrees

Field radius: 1.184 degrees

More info:Open 

Resolution: 1500x1168

Locations: Backyard, Belen, NM, United States

Data source: Backyard


Messier 78 or M 78, also known as NGC 2068, is a reflection nebula in the constellation Orion. It was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1780 and included by Charles Messier in his catalog of comet-like objects that same year.

M78 is the brightest diffuse reflection nebula of a group of nebulae that includes NGC 2064, NGC 2067 and NGC 2071. This group belongs to the Orion B molecular cloud complex and is about 1,350 light-years distant from Earth. M78 is easily found in small telescopes as a hazy patch and involves two stars of 10th and 11th magnitude. These two B-type stars, HD 38563 A and HD 38563 B, are responsible for making the cloud of dust in M78 visible by reflecting their light.

The M78 cloud contains a cluster of stars that is visible in the infrared. Due to gravity, the molecular gas in the nebula has fragmented into a hierarchy of clumps, the denser cores of which about to form stars with masses of up to 5 M☉. About 45 variable stars of the T Tauri type, young stars still in the process of formation. Similarly, 17 Herbig–Haro objects are known in M78.


Sky plot

Sky plot




            Joey Troy