Gary Imm



A backyard amateur astrophotographer enjoying retirement with my wife on beautiful Lake Livingston in Onalaska, Texas, about 90 minutes north of Houston.

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Pseudobulges, also called disk-type bulges, are recognized by their distinctive X-pattern in the edge-on view. This pattern is also often described as peanut-shaped or Figure 8 shaped. The pattern is due to the inherent vertical instability of the bar and the resulting periodic orbits of stars in the bar region. It is believed that these bulges are formed by a secular (slow) process of gas transport from the disk to the bulge area. All of these galaxy types have a bar, although often the bar is hard to see in the edge-on views of the poster. The bar is believed to be the mechanism for creating the pseudo bulge. These pseudobulges form the largest of the 3 bulge categories.