Hemisphere:  Northern  ·  Constellation: Andromeda (And)  ·  Contains:  Great Nebula in Andromeda  ·  M 110  ·  M 31  ·  M 32  ·  NGC 205  ·  NGC 221  ·  NGC 224  ·  The star 32And  ·  The star νAnd
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Andromeda Galaxy (Messier 31), 


            Miles Zhou
Andromeda Galaxy (Messier 31)
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Technical card

Dates:Dec. 18, 2012

Frames: 46x180" (2h 18')

Integration: 2h 18'

Avg. Moon age: 5.68 days

Avg. Moon phase: 32.25%

Basic astrometry details

Astrometry.net job: 164339

RA center: 0h 44' 6"

DEC center: +41° 25' 15"

Pixel scale: 4.501 arcsec/pixel

Orientation: -93.964 degrees

Field radius: 2.403 degrees

Resolution: 620x363


Andromeda Galaxy taken by NSP of Xingming Observatory, in combination with Mr. Maosheng Chen's originals (detailed below).
Exposure Total 46x180s at ISO 800; from which, 24 are acquired by Maosheng Chen. Thanks for Maosheng's generous offer.
Processing IRIS:
Stacking; two baches separately stacked, and added by an optimized ratio as discussed in Stacking_of_Two_Images (http://orianhealth.com/mediawiki/index.php?title=Stacking_of_Two_Images).
MaximDL: MaximDL generates two layers: the nebulocity and star layers.
Nebulocity layer: Erode (3x3) --> DDP --> Gaussion (1.5)
Star layer: A simple stretch
PS: Blending the nebulocity and star layers by Ligher; and a high pass layer blended by Overlay. Finally, some final touch (Color balance, brightness and contrast).
Two PS operations greatly improved the quality
1. High-pass layer blended by overlay (or alternatively, by Soft Light or other lightening blending modes)
2. Gaussion blur on the nebulocity layer.


Sky plot

Sky plot


Andromeda Galaxy (Messier 31), 


            Miles Zhou